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    • Who Invented the Microphone?

      Who Invented the Microphone?

      A microphone is a device that converts acoustic power into electric power. Both the acoustic power and the electric power have similar wave characteristics that convert sound waves into electric voltages that eventually convert back into sound waves through speakers. Microphone were used with the first telephones, and then with radio transmitters soon after. Sir

    • I2S (Inter-IC Sound)

      I2S (Inter-IC Sound)

      I2S is Inter-IC Sound. I2S is a serial bus used to transport digital audio. High-end CD and DVD players feature I2S outputs. I2S inputs are found on some PC sound cards. I2S Pinouts Pin Purpose 1 Word Clock (WCLK) 2 Bit Clock (BCLK) 3 DATA 4 Master Clock (MCLK) 5 DEM The pins on the

    • TOSLINK

      TOSLINK

      TOSLINK or Toshiba – LINK is a connection standard for digital audio streams. It is a standard which uses fiber optic cables. The important feature of fiber optic cables is that they convert audio signals into light impulses as opposed to electric signals. TOSLINK cables usually transmit their signals as the red LED lights. The

    • Lossy Compression

      Lossy Compression

      Lossy compression is a type of compression that removes unnecessary components of a file to reduce the file’s size. Lossy compression is often used in multimedia files, such as still images and audio files that hold a significant amount of redundant information. Lossy compression results in a reduction of quality of the file that is

    • Signal to Noise Ratio

      Signal to Noise Ratio

      The Signal to Noise Ratio is a ratio of desired signal to undesired signal (noise) in the average power level of a transmission. The signal is what you are measuring that is the result of the presence of your analyte. Noise is extraneous information that can interfere with or alter the signal. It can not

    • Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Duplex simply means that the communications device enables users to talk to someone in another location and the person in the other location to respond to the user via the same type of device. As an example, when someone makes a telephone call, he/she is engaging in a duplex procedure. The same is true when

    • HRTF (Head Related Transfer Function)

      HRTF (Head Related Transfer Function)

      HRTF (Head Related Transfer Functions) refers to a technique used in audio recordings in order to produce binaural signals from a monaural source. While monaural signals refer to sounds that a signal source produces and both ears hear them at varying distances and frequencies, binaural signals refer to sounds that two separate sources produce and that each ear

    • How to Measure Sound Quality

      How to Measure Sound Quality

      There are many ways to measure sound quality. Many measurements have been created to specifically measure and rate the quality of sound. Here are a few of the most common types of measurements used for sound quality. THD THD stands for Total Harmonic Distortion. It is a measurement taken to view the total amount of

    • This Device Cannot Start – Code 10

      This Device Cannot Start – Code 10

      When someone receives the Windows error, “This device cannot start. Code 10 in audio driver,” it means that he/she has a bad, missing, or incompatible driver for his/her sound card. The very technical and confusing explanation for this message, according to Microsoft, is this: “If the device has a FailReasonString value in its hardware key,

    • SPDIF

      SPDIF

      SPDIF, or the Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format) is used to carry or transport digital audio signals in consumer electronic equipment such as CD and DVD players, PC audio cards, and car audio systems over short distances. The digital signal can be carried over fiber optic (TOSLINK connectors) or coaxial cable (RCA connectors) and is also

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