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    • Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Duplex simply means that the communications device enables users to talk to someone in another location and the person in the other location to respond to the user via the same type of device. As an example, when someone makes a telephone call, he/she is engaging in a duplex procedure. The same is true when

    • Signal to Noise Ratio

      Signal to Noise Ratio

      The Signal to Noise Ratio is a ratio of desired signal to undesired signal (noise) in the average power level of a transmission. The signal is what you are measuring that is the result of the presence of your analyte. Noise is extraneous information that can interfere with or alter the signal. It can not

    • What is a Hydrophone?

      What is a Hydrophone?

      A hydrophone is a type of microphone that is specifically designed to be used under water. Hydrophones depend on piezoelectric transducers to detect sound waves and other pressure waves coming from underwater vehicles, animals, and natural structures. Hydrophones were widely used in World War I, and II to detect U-boats (German submarines) and are still

    • HSS Speakers

      HSS Speakers

      Conceptually, hypersonic sound (HSS) systems do to sound what laser technology does to light – focus sound into a tight beam that can travel great distances without dispersing. HSS systems can create sound that is meant only for a certain individual(s), not for everyone who just happens to be in the vicinity. HSS Speakers versus

    • SPDIF

      SPDIF

      SPDIF, or the Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format) is used to carry or transport digital audio signals in consumer electronic equipment such as CD and DVD players, PC audio cards, and car audio systems over short distances. The digital signal can be carried over fiber optic (TOSLINK connectors) or coaxial cable (RCA connectors) and is also

    • Noise Canceling Headphones

      Noise Canceling Headphones

      Noise-canceling headphones are headsets that have the ability not just to block out noise but to cancel it using the properties of sound waves. Sound waves have compression and rarefaction characteristics similar to the crests and troughs of a transverse wave. They also have amplitude and frequency characteristics. These characteristics of sound waves are used

    • Banana Plugs

      Banana Plugs

      A banana plug is mainly used to insert speaker wire coming from an amplifier or receiver directly into the speaker. The banana plug is named after its shape. It is a slender, but bulging prong that is similar to a banana. However, unlike bananas, the banana plug is not bent, but straight. Other uses for

    • How to Measure Signal Quality

      How to Measure Signal Quality

      Most people usually look to Signal to Noise Ratio to measure the signal quality of either audio or video communications. Signal to noise ratio is usually written either S/N or SNR. Most of the time the signal to noise ratio is measured in decibels. A decibel is a measure of power or loudness. Not to

    • This Device Cannot Start – Code 10

      This Device Cannot Start – Code 10

      When someone receives the Windows error, “This device cannot start. Code 10 in audio driver,” it means that he/she has a bad, missing, or incompatible driver for his/her sound card. The very technical and confusing explanation for this message, according to Microsoft, is this: “If the device has a FailReasonString value in its hardware key,

    • Digital Audio Cables

      Digital Audio Cables

      One of the significant developments with the widespread adoption of the personal computer for home, business, and school use is the digitalization of media and the subsequent mass adaptation by consumers and industry. While digital media is not a new concept, it has only recently made its way into the “normal” household and is commonly

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