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    • PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

      PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

      PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a data encryption and decryption program used in e-mail messaging, encrypting/decrypting texts, files, or even disk partitions, in order to provide security of data. The program was created in 1991, by Phil Zimmerman. Pretty Good Privacy encryption is based on using a serial combination of data compression, hashing, public-key cryptography

    • Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and transposition ciphers are two categories of ciphers used in classical cryptography. Substitution and transposition differ in how chunks of the message are handled by the encryption process. Substitution ciphers Substitution ciphers encrypt plaintext by changing the plaintext one piece at a time. The Caesar Cipher was an early substitution cipher. In the Caesar

    • X.509


      X.509 is an ITU-T (ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector) standard for PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) in cryptography, which, amongst many other things, defines specific formats for PKC (Public Key Certificates) and the algorithm that verifies a given certificate path is valid under a give PKI (called the certification path validation algorithm). X.509 History X.509 began in

    • Certificate Authority

      Certificate Authority

      Certificate Authority or Certification Authority (CA) is an entity, which is core to many PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) schemes, whose purpose is to issue digital certificates to use by other parties. It exemplifies a trusted third party. Some certification authorities may charge a fee for their service while some other CAs are free. It is

    • Wordlists


      A wordlist is a text file containing a collection of words for use in a dictionary attack. Wordlist Usage A dictionary attack using a wordlist relies on the fact that most users choose weak passwords. Very common passwords include password, computer, work, and most of the popular female names. Common Dictionary Attacks Using A Wordlist

    • RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman)

      RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman)

      RSA, which stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, is a security algorithm used in digital cryptography. RSA differs from older symmetric algorithms because it has the ability of allowing digital signing as well as advanced encryption for online commerce systems and high-profile institutions. RSA was one of the first major advancements in digital cryptography but

    • XOR Encryption

      XOR Encryption

      The XOR encryption is a simple symmetric cipher that is used in many applications where security is not a defined requirement. The XOR Operator XOR (Exclusive OR) is a bitwise operator from binary mathematics. The six bitwise operators, as defined in the C programming language, are: Operation Symbol AND & Inclusive OR | Exclusive OR

    • One-Time Pad

      One-Time Pad

      A one-time pad is a form of encryption that is difficult to decipher or crack if one is not the intended recipient. If done correctly, the strength of encryption of plaintext can almost be impossible to break in a useful timeframe. The system takes each character from plaintext and uses modular addition with a character

    • GnuPG Shell

      GnuPG Shell

      Everyone likes safety. The safety of confidential information is always of special concern. Therefore, information protection is a necessity and can be useful to companies and individuals who care about their intellectual property’s confidentiality. People who want their e-mails kept confidential and their e-mail attachments readable only to the intended recipient can appreciate information protection.

    • Cryptographic Algorithms

      Cryptographic Algorithms

      Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM’s Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits.

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