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    • DNS Cache

      DNS Cache

      DNS (Domain Name Server) is the web server used to resolve a website’s name to its Internet Protocol (IP) address. DNS servers across the Internet are either considered authoritative with regards to a website name and corresponding IP address or are required to verify the IP address with another DNS server that will in turn

    • Proxy ARP

      Proxy ARP

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is used by network systems to convert system communications from the routable layer 3 IP protocol to the non-routable layer 2 data link layer protocols. In most cases, you don’t need to modify this behavior at all, and system communications are optimal. In special circumstances it is preferable to have another

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • 802.1p

      802.1p

      802.1p is an IEEE standard that describes mechanisms to prioritize traffic and perform dynamic multicast filtering. Because of its support for priority specification, 802.1p is important for providing Quality of Service (QoS) for better reliability and quality. Quality of Service QoS is a mechanism that allows for better handling of data that passes over a

    • ARP Cache

      ARP Cache

      The ARP cache is a table that stores mappings between Data Link Layer addresses and Network Layer addresses. The Data Link Layer addresses are usually MAC addresses and the Network Layer addresses are most frequently IP addresses. The Operating System stores the ARP cache in RAM. Displaying the ARP Cache Under most Unix and Microsoft

    • Session Layer

      Session Layer

      The Session Layer is Layer 5 of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model of computer networking. The Session Layer is directly after the Transport Layer and before the Presentation Layer, allowing it to interact with applications as well as network components. The Session Layer is responsible for opening, maintaining, and closing all sessions between multiple

    • RG-58

      RG-58

      RG-58 is a coaxial cable that is used for wiring purposes. A coaxial cable, in general, consists of an inner conductor that is surrounded by a spacer. The coaxial cable is electrically charged and sometimes consists of different uninsulated conductors that remain entangled with one another. The insulating spacer of the cable is further surrounded

    • Rogue Wireless Access Point

      Rogue Wireless Access Point

      A Rogue Access Point is a Wi-Fi Access Point which is setup by an attacker for the purpose of sniffing wireless network traffic. 802.11 (Wi-Fi) utilizes SSIDs (Service Set IDentifiers) to authenticate NICs to wireless access points. There is no similar protocol for authenticating wireless access points. It is possible to place a rogue wireless

    • Network Cable is Unplugged

      Network Cable is Unplugged

      When an error message saying, “Network cable is unplugged” is displayed, it generally means that the computer can detect that there is an ASDL and/or Cable Connection pre-configured on the computer, but an Ethernet cable and/or a cable that is supposed to be plugged into the modem is unplugged. In the case that all of

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