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    • CSMA/CD


      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

    • ADSL Router

      ADSL Router

      An ADSL router is also known as a DSL modem. The router connects the computer to the DSL phone line so the ADSL service can be used. Some countries also use the term NTBBA (Network Termination BroadBand Access). There are some ADSL routers that are also capable of sharing a single Internet connection with a

    • IPsec


      IPSec (IP Security) is a suite of protocols which was designed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to protect data by signing and encrypting data before it is transmitted over public networks. The IETF Request for Comments (RFCs) 2401-2409 defines the IPSec protocols with regard to security protocols, security associations and key management, and authentication

    • VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments, given specific configurations. Since a VLAN is a logical entity, its creation and configuration is done completely in software. How is a VLAN Identified? Since a VLAN is a

    • Enabling IP Routing

      Enabling IP Routing

      WAN connects different LANs with each other to communicate and to share data and resources. As a result, routers must be used on each network or at backbone to route the IP packets and IP routing should be enabled on the routers. Routers must learn the destinations that are not directly connected by building and

    • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a technological system developed for both local and wide area networks (LAN and WAN), and designed to handle data as well as video and voice traffic in real time, all at the same time. The system architecture makes use of switches that set up logical circuits at both ends of

    • What is Intersymbol Interference?

      What is Intersymbol Interference?

      Intersymbol interference is a signal distortion in telecommunication. One or more symbols can interfere with other symbols causing noise or a less reliable signal. The main causes of intersymbol interference are multipath propagation or non-linear frequency in channels. This has the effect of a blur or mixture of symbols, which can reduce signal clarity. If

    • Fiber Optic Internet

      Fiber Optic Internet

        Everyday, data transfer rates are getting faster and faster as technology gets better and demands get higher. To keep up with these faster data transfer needs, fiber optic Internet access has been introduced to the public. Fiber optic Internet uses pulses of light to create an electromagnetic carrier wave that can be used to

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

    • Packet Sniffers

      Packet Sniffers

      Packet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw network device for interesting packets. When the software sees a packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most common criterion for an interesting packet is one that contains words like “login” or “password.” To packet sniff, obtain or code a packet

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