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    • What is an L2TP?

      What is an L2TP?

      L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) defines an extension to PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) that an ISP (Internet Service Provider) uses to allow a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to operate. L2TP combines L2F from Cisco Systems’ optimum features and PPTP from Microsoft into a single protocol. L2TP’s two primary components are the LNS (L2TP Network Server)

    • Routing Software

      Routing Software

      Most networks currently run on hardware-based routers from vendors like Cisco, Foundry, and Juniper. Computing power has advanced to the point where this is not necessary. General purpose computing platforms can replace these expensive dedicated hardware routers. These software routing platforms usually run on some version of free or inexpensive Unix. These are a few

    • 802.1Q

      802.1Q

      802.1Q is also known as IEEE 802.1Q or VLAN tagging. It defines a virtual local area network. It is a protocol that allows virtual LANs to communicate with one another using a 3-layered router. It was developed as a part of IEEE 802. Why Was The 802.1Q Standard Developed? Large networks use up a lot

    • MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS stands for Multi Protocol Label Switching. The MPLS is often referred to as the layer in between the Data Link and Network layers because of where it operates. The MPLS serves as a method to forward packets of data easily by using labels. What are the Data Link and Network layers? In the seven-layer

    • NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. Why NAT? The current Internet uses IP addresses in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. A sample IP address might be 202.187.4.212. Because of the way these IP addresses are allocated, there started to be a shortage of available IP addresses. The current IP (Internet

    • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      An IP address can be defined as a unique numeric identifier (address) that is assigned to each computer operating in a TCP/IP based network. Manually configuring computers with IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration parameters is not an intricate task. However, manually configuring thousands of workstations with unique IP addresses would be a time consuming,

    • IP Address Classes

      IP Address Classes

      IP Address classes were the original organizational structure for IP addresses. The specific address class would determine the maximum potential size for a computer network. The address class would define which of the specific bits of the address would be used to identify the network and network identification, the bits to identify the host computer

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

    • Broadcast Address

      Broadcast Address

      A broadcast address is an IP address that targets all systems on a specific subnet instead of single hosts. The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask, and then applying it with a bitwise OR calculation to

    • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is a complementary protocol to IP (Internet Protocol). Like IP, ICMP resides on the Network Layer of the OSI Model. ICMP is designed for sending control and test messages across IP networks. Unlike the Transport Layer protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) which

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