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  • Network Layer

    • 192.168


      The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has allocated three IP address ranges that are to be exclusively used for private Internet networks: – (10/8 prefix) – (172.16/12 prefix) – (192.168/16 prefix) The first block “ –” is referred to as the 24-bit block, the second “ –”

    • DHCP Reservation

      DHCP Reservation

      A DHCP reservation is a permanent IP address assignment. It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Users can configure a DHCP reservation in their DHCP server when they need to reserve a permanent IP address assignment. Reservations are used for

    • What is PCAP?

      What is PCAP?

      PCAP (Packet Capture) is a protocol for wireless Internet communication that allows a computer or device to receive incoming radio signals from another device and convert those signals into usable information. It allows a wireless device to convert information into radio signals in order to transfer them to another device. PCAP runs in the background

    • traceroute


      traceroute is a command which is used to trace the route of a packet through a TCP/IP network. traceroute is a Unix command. Under Microsoft Windows, the traceroute command has been renamed `tracert`. Unix `traceroute` and Microsoft Windows `tracert` are designed to accomplish the same task, but differ in the way they display output, in

    • DHCP Scope

      DHCP Scope

      A DHCP scope is a valid range of IP addresses that are available for assignment or lease to client computers on a particular subnet. In a DHCP server, a scope is configured to determine the address pool of IPs that the server can provide to DHCP clients. Scopes determine which IP addresses are provided to

    • Null Route

      Null Route

      A null route is a route that goes to nowhere. The reason for creating a null route is to prevent your system from sending any data to a remote system. Creating a null route Null routes are usually created using the `route` command. This works under both Windows and Unix, although the syntax differs. The

    • 802.1Q


      802.1Q is also known as IEEE 802.1Q or VLAN tagging. It defines a virtual local area network. It is a protocol that allows virtual LANs to communicate with one another using a 3-layered router. It was developed as a part of IEEE 802. Why Was The 802.1Q Standard Developed? Large networks use up a lot

    • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      An IP address can be defined as a unique numeric identifier (address) that is assigned to each computer operating in a TCP/IP based network. Manually configuring computers with IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration parameters is not an intricate task. However, manually configuring thousands of workstations with unique IP addresses would be a time consuming,

    • What is an L2TP?

      What is an L2TP?

      L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) defines an extension to PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) that an ISP (Internet Service Provider) uses to allow a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to operate. L2TP combines L2F from Cisco Systems’ optimum features and PPTP from Microsoft into a single protocol. L2TP’s two primary components are the LNS (L2TP Network Server)

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

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