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  • Network Layer

    • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)

      An IP address can be defined as a unique numeric identifier (address) that is assigned to each computer operating in a TCP/IP based network. Manually configuring computers with IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration parameters is not an intricate task. However, manually configuring thousands of workstations with unique IP addresses would be a time consuming,

    • 192.168.1.245

      192.168.1.245

      Cisco is a leading manufacturer of networking devices such as modems, wireless routers, and network storage devices. Cisco products are sold worldwide to millions of consumers for both residential and commercial purposes. Cisco also markets a number of data plans for some of the largest Internet Service Providers in the world. What is 192.168.1.245? 192.168.1.245

    • BOOTP

      BOOTP

      BOOTP is the Bootstrap Protocol. The BOOTP protocol is utilized by diskless workstations to gather configuration information from a network server. The information provided by the BOOTP protocol is: The IP address which should be utilized by the diskless workstation The IP address of a server which will provide an Operating System image for the

    • Broadcast Address

      Broadcast Address

      A broadcast address is an IP address that targets all systems on a specific subnet instead of single hosts. The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask, and then applying it with a bitwise OR calculation to

    • What is a Zeroconf?

      What is a Zeroconf?

      Zeroconf (zero configuration networking) refers to several protocols and techniques that are used together to create an IP (Internet Protocol) network with no special configuration servers or manual operator intervention. These networks allow novices to connect computers, network devices, scanners, and printers to create a functioning network without requiring manual configuration. Zeroconf does not require

    • traceroute

      traceroute

      traceroute is a command which is used to trace the route of a packet through a TCP/IP network. traceroute is a Unix command. Under Microsoft Windows, the traceroute command has been renamed `tracert`. Unix `traceroute` and Microsoft Windows `tracert` are designed to accomplish the same task, but differ in the way they display output, in

    • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is a complementary protocol to IP (Internet Protocol). Like IP, ICMP resides on the Network Layer of the OSI Model. ICMP is designed for sending control and test messages across IP networks. Unlike the Transport Layer protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) which

    • DHCP Reservation

      DHCP Reservation

      A DHCP reservation is a permanent IP address assignment. It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Users can configure a DHCP reservation in their DHCP server when they need to reserve a permanent IP address assignment. Reservations are used for

    • Network Routers

      Network Routers

      A network router is a network device with interfaces in multiple networks whose task is to copy packets from one network to another. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI Model, the Network Layer. This is in contrast to switches, which operate at Layer 2 of the OSI Model, the Data-Link Layer. A network

    • MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS stands for Multi Protocol Label Switching. The MPLS is often referred to as the layer in between the Data Link and Network layers because of where it operates. The MPLS serves as a method to forward packets of data easily by using labels. What are the Data Link and Network layers? In the seven-layer

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