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    • What is Flocculation?

      What is Flocculation?

      Flocculation is when microscopic particles bind together to form larger particles in liquids. It occurs naturally or artificially in water as well as other solutions. Flocculation is used in applications such as water purification, sewage treatment, cheese production, and brewing. It is also used in surface and physical chemistry, biology, and civil engineering. The term

    • Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized rubber is a material that undergoes a chemical process known as vulcanization. This process involves mixing natural rubber with additives such as sulfur and other curatives. Vulcanization makes rubber much stronger, more flexible, and more resistant to heat and other environmental conditions. Vulcanized rubber makes both soft and hard objects, ranging from rubber bands

    • Molality

      Molality

      Molality is the number of moles in a solute per kilogram of solvent. It is often confused with the term molarity, which is an alternative unit for concentration that measures the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Molality is commonly used when experiments require significant temperature changes. This is because a solute’s

    • Magnesium Anodes

      Magnesium Anodes

      Sacrificial anodes are used in cathodic protection systems in order to protect the primary metallic component(s) from corrosion. A magnesium anode is a type of metal used on boats and ships in order to protect the vessel’s other metallic parts. It first protects the area’s less active metal and acts as a corrosion barrier. How

    • Potassium Benzoate

      Potassium Benzoate

      Potassium benzoate is the potassium salt of benzoic acid. Benzoic acids are weak acids that are used as food preservatives. Potassium benzoate is also commonly used for preserving food. It is primarily used to inhibit mold and bacteria growth. This allows the product that potassium benzoate preserves to last longer on the shelf, thereby increasing

    • Isobutane

      Isobutane

      Isomers are compounds with the same molecular, but different structural formulas. Isobutane is an isomer of butane. It belongs to a class of compounds called alkanes, which are chains of carbon atoms where each carbon atom is attached to as many hydrogen atoms as possible.  Its chemical formula is C4H10. Butane consists of four carbon

    • What is a Plasma Cutter?

      What is a Plasma Cutter?

      A plasma cutter is a device that directs an ionized gas at an object under extreme temperatures. Plasma cutters are often used for industrial purposes, such as cutting metal, and are dependent on plasma, an extremely hot state of matter. Plasma cutters are essentially a type of plasma torch meant for cutting metal rather than

    • What is Luminol?

      What is Luminol?

      Luminol is a substance that has a blue or green glow when it comes in contact with blood, certain metals, or other oxidizing agents. It is made from hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide and exhibits chemiluminescence, the process by which light is emitted from a chemical reaction. Luminol has many uses, but is most widely used

    • Mannitol Salt Agar

      Mannitol Salt Agar

      In order to grow a bacterial culture in a lab, a growth medium has to be used to provide the right environment. Mannitol salt agar is a popular bacterial growth medium that biologists use to grow halphile bacteria (these grow fast in high salt concentrations) and can tell the difference between non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus

    • What is Photoelectron Spectroscopy?

      What is Photoelectron Spectroscopy?

      Photoelectron spectroscopy is the study of energy and how it relates to matter in terms of absorption and production. Photoelectron spectroscopy observes both wavelengths and frequencies and is used to view the physical composition of chemicals and solids. It is used in both analytical and physical chemistry and astronomy in order to study an object’s

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