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    • IFL (Interfacility Link)

      IFL (Interfacility Link)

      An IFL, or Interfacility Link, is a cable system that is used in facilities to connect an outdoor unit and an indoor unit. An outdoor unit refers to the satellite receiver or coaxial cable that connects a service provider to a company while an indoor unit refers to the coaxial cables, routers, or transmitters inside

    • Retrograde Orbit

      Retrograde Orbit

      A retrograde orbit is an orbit where the satellite travels in an East to West direction instead of the common West to East orbit. The normal West to East orbits are known as prograde orbits. Retrograde orbits are uncommon due to the much higher velocities necessary for successful launch and the associated higher costs. During

    • How GPS Tracking Works

      How GPS Tracking Works

      GPS – A Short Introduction GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is a satellite navigation system that can ascertain the latitude and longitude of a GPS receiver device on the Earth.  The GPS consists of more than two dozen global positioning satellites orbiting the earth. Each satellite transmits radio signals, which can help determine

    • Satellite Systems

      Satellite Systems

      The basic types of satellite systems include geostationary (GEO), Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) satellites. There are also public and private satellite systems such as Television Receive Only (TVRO), Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and multibeam satellite operations. Geosynchronous satellites orbit the Earth on

    • Symbol Rate

      Symbol Rate

      The symbol rate is the rate of state changes on a communications circuit. If a circuit can carry two tones per second, the circuit has a symbol rate of two. Circuits then use different modulation techniques to carry multiple bits per symbol. If the circuit is limited to two different tones, the first tone can

    • Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary satellites are located exactly above the earth’s equator and revolve around the earth in a circular orbit. Their revolving speed and direction (west to east) are exactly same as that of the earth, which makes it look stationary from the earth’s surface. The exact altitude of these satellites above the equator is approximately 36,000

    • GPS (Global Positioning System)

      GPS (Global Positioning System)

      GPS stands for Global Positioning System.  It refers to a system of satellites that constantly transmit a signal, and a GPS terminal that picks up those signals and calculates its position on Earth by measuring the distance between itself and two or more GPS satellites (by measuring the time it takes to receive the signals).

    • VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)

      VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)

      VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is basically a two-way satellite ground station with a less than 3 meters tall (most of them are about 0.75 m to 1.2 m tall) dish antenna stationed. The transmission rates of VSATs are usually from very low up to 4 Mbit/s. These VSATs’ primary job is to access the

    • Ku Band

      Ku Band

      The Ku band (Kurtz-under band) is primarily used for satellite communications, particularly for editing and broadcasting satellite television. This band is split into multiple segments broken down into geographical regions, as the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) determines. The Ku band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from

    • What is a BUC?

      What is a BUC?

      A BUC (Block Upconverter) is a device that converts radio signals from a lower frequency to a higher frequency. BUCs are used in satellite uplink transmissions in order to transfer data from a ground based unit to a satellite in orbit that will then be redirected to another ground based unit in separate location. Likewise,

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