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    • Race Condition

      Race Condition

      A race condition occurs when multiple processes access and manipulate the same data concurrently, and the outcome of the execution depends on the particular order in which the access takes place. A race condition is of interest to a hacker when the race condition can be utilized to gain privileged system access. Consider the following

    • Decompiler

      Decompiler

      A decompiler is a program which takes executable code and produces source code from it. A compiler creates executable code from source code; A decompiler attempts to reverse this process. A decompiler is a specialized version of a disassembler. While a disassembler converts executable code to assembly language, a decompiler attempts to go further and

    • Traversing and Searching a Linear Linked List

      Traversing and Searching a Linear Linked List

      Traversing a list A linear list can be traversed in two ways In order traversal Reverse order traversal In order Traversal To traverse the linear linked list, we walk the list using the pointers, and process each element until we reach the last element. .cf { font-family: Lucida Console; font-size: 9pt; color: black; background: white;

    • How to Declare a Constant in Java

      How to Declare a Constant in Java

      Java does not directly support constants. However, a static final variable is effectively a constant. The static modifier causes the variable to be available without loading an instance of the class where it is defined. The final modifier causes the variable to be unchangeable. Ex: public static final int FOUNDING_YEAR = 2001; Naming Standards for

    • File Input/Output

      File Input/Output

      In C++, file input/output services are implemented through a component header file available in the C++ standard library. This header file is fstream.h . In C++, a file, at its lowest level, is interpreted simply as a sequence, or stream, of bytes. One aspect of the file I/O library manages the transfer of these bytes.

    • Stacks

      Stacks

      Stacks are one of the commonly used data structures. A stack is also known as a last in first out (LIFO) system. It can be considered as a linear list in which insertion and deletion can take place only at one end called the top. This structure operates in much the same way as a

    • How to Sign a Java Applet

      How to Sign a Java Applet

      Java applets are designed to run in a restricted environment known as Sandbox. This confinement helps avoid malicious activities and breach of security from intentionally harmful applets. Therefore, an applet cannot access or communicate with any outside-the-sandbox resource unless granted permission by the user. The trustworthiness of an applet is showcased by signing it with

    • Depth First Search Algorithm

      Depth First Search Algorithm

      A DFS algorithm, as the name implies, is used to search deeper in the graph, whenever possible. The edges are explored, out of the most recently discovered vertex v that still has unexplored edges leaving it. When all of v's edges have been explored, the search backtracks to explore edges leaving the vertex from which

    • Java Operators

      Java Operators

      Java Operator Operator Description [ ] Array index () Method call . Member access ++ Prefix or postfix increment — Prefix or postfix decrement + – Unary plus, minus ~ Bitwise NOT ! Boolean (logical) NOT (type) Type cast new Object creation * / % Multiplication, division, remainder + – Addition, subtraction + String concatenation

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