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    • PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities consists of three different authorities that essentially make up a PKI system. These are the Registration Authority, Certification Authority and Certificate Directory. Registration Authority The jobs of the Registration Authority are to processes user requests, confirm their identities, and induct them into the user database. Certification Authority The tasks of a Certification Authority

    • The History of Computer Viruses

      The History of Computer Viruses

      Computer viruses have been around just about as long as the personal computer has existed. With the advent of the Internet, the ability of viruses to rapidly spread has increased substantially. Despite this increase in capability to infect large numbers of computers across international borders, the definition of a computer virus has not substantially changed

    • How to Clear MSN Search History

      How to Clear MSN Search History

      When using MSN and doing a search, you are using the Bing software which is Microsoft’s search engine. However, one of the things that you might want to do is clear your search history. Perhaps you were searching fro something on a computer that you don’t want anyone to know. Maybe you just don’t want

    • HijackThis


      Are viruses and malware affecting your computer efficiency? Try HijackThis. HijackThis, popularly known in the computing world as HJT, is one of the most effective spyware and malware removal software tool available for detecting and removing harmful viruses, spyware, worms, Trojans and other pests affecting Microsoft Windows. This program was originally developed by Merijn Bellekom,

    • Cryptographic Algorithms

      Cryptographic Algorithms

      Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM’s Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits.

    • Chosen Plaintext Attack

      Chosen Plaintext Attack

      A chosen plaintext attack is an attack where the cryptanalyst is able to define his own plaintext, feed it into the cipher, and analyze the resulting ciphertext. Mounting a chosen plaintext attack requires the cryptanalyst to be able to send data of his choice into the device which is doing the encryption, and it requires

    • Known Ciphertext Attack

      Known Ciphertext Attack

      The known ciphertext attack, or ciphertext only attack (COA) is an attack method used in cryptanalysis when the attacker has access to a given set of ciphertext(s). The attacker does not have access to corresponding cleartext in this method; however, COA is successful when correspdonding plaintext can be determined from a given set of ciphertext.

    • How Does RAR Password Recovery work?

      How Does RAR Password Recovery work?

      RAR Password Recovery is a password recovery software that is specifically designed to recover lost passwords for RAR and ZIP files. RAR Password Recovery is available from a number of sources and is available in both trial and full versions, although the trial version only allows users to recover passwords that are three characters long.

    • How to Determine if a Credit Card Number is Valid

      How to Determine if a Credit Card Number is Valid

      Credit cards use the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm. The main purpose of the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty here as a weak security tool. The Luhn Check Digit Algorithm For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd numbered digit (1st digit,

    • Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and transposition ciphers are two categories of ciphers used in classical cryptography. Substitution and transposition differ in how chunks of the message are handled by the encryption process. Substitution ciphers Substitution ciphers encrypt plaintext by changing the plaintext one piece at a time. The Caesar Cipher was an early substitution cipher. In the Caesar

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