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    • How to Decrypt Cisco Passwords

      How to Decrypt Cisco Passwords

      If  ‘service password-encryption’ is not configured on the Cisco device, simply read the plain text passwords from the configuration file. If ‘service password-encryption’ is configured on the Cisco device, most of the passwords are encrypted with a weak encryption algorithm (Type 7) that is easy to decrypt. Once there is access to the Cisco configuration

    • ISO 7816

      ISO 7816

      ISO 7816 is the internationally accepted standard for smart cards. ISO 7816 is a family of standards primarily dealing with aspects of smart card interoperability regarding communication characteristics, physical properties, and application identifiers of the implanted chip and data. The ISO 7816 family includes eleven parts which are in a constant state of flux as

    • Block and Stream Ciphers

      Block and Stream Ciphers

      The two most common types of encryption algorithm used in modern cryptography are the block and stream ciphers. The block cipher uses a deterministic algorithm that conducts operations on fixed-length groupings of bits, or blocks. By using a transformation specified by a symmetric key, a block cipher is able to encrypt bulk data, and is

    • How to Remove a Virus

      How to Remove a Virus

      A computer virus is designed to infect computer files through self-replication, and is able to infect other computers on its own. Viruses infect computers through boot sectors of portable drives, email attachments, other files, and by exploiting vulnerabilities in instant messaging and other real-time communication systems online. Not all computer viruses harm computers, but many

    • Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool

      Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool

      The Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool is a program designed to remove malicious software from your computer. Before you can understand what this tool does, however, you must first understand what malicious software is. In this article, we will go over what malicious software is, how Microsoft's tool allows you to remove it, the differences

    • How to Remove the Generic.dx Trojan

      How to Remove the Generic.dx Trojan

      Generic.dx is a rather common trojan virus that infects the computer and weakens its security in order to allow other viruses and malicious software to infect the computer. It enters the computer via an email that the user opens, a website he/she visits, or a third party software that he/she downloads and installs. Generic.dx trojans

    • Belkin Router Default Password

      Belkin Router Default Password

      Belkin is a leading manufacturer of networking devices such as modems, wireless routers, and network storage devices. Belkin also produces a number of other wireless access devices and USB based modem cards and markets a number of data plans for some of the largest Internet Service Providers. Belkin Router Default Password As with any other

    • Forensic Science

      Forensic Science

      The word forensic comes from the Latin word forensis, which means “before the forum,” and refers to something “of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law.” In this day and age, it almost always refers to a method of obtaining criminal evidence in order to use it in a court of law. Forensic

    • Diffie-Hellman

      Diffie-Hellman

      The Diffie-Hellman key exchange was first published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976 and is a popular method for exchanging cryptographic keys. The method is one of the most straight-forward examples of key exchanges implemented in the cryptology field and allows two individuals or parties that have not worked together before to establish

    • GPG (GNU Privacy Guard)

      GPG (GNU Privacy Guard)

      GPG, or GNU Privacy Guard, is a free replacement and competing product for PGP (Pretty Good Privacy). The project is a data encryption and decryption application which provides end-users with a cryptographic privacy and authentication system for communicating electronic data. GPG can be used to sign, encrypt, and decrypt text, for email, files, directories, and

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