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    • Wordlists

      Wordlists

      A wordlist is a text file containing a collection of words for use in a dictionary attack. Wordlist Usage A dictionary attack using a wordlist relies on the fact that most users choose weak passwords. Very common passwords include password, computer, work, and most of the popular female names. Common Dictionary Attacks Using A Wordlist

    • Plaintext and Ciphertext

      Plaintext and Ciphertext

      In the study of cryptography the terms plaintext and ciphertext are used to describe the plain language message or information and the resulting encrypted message or data that results from the use of a cipher or encryption algorithm. The resulting ciphertext is not readable by either a human or computer without the correct cipher to

    • How a Smart Card Programmer Works

      How a Smart Card Programmer Works

      A smart card is a mini computer which requires programming to run. A smart card doesn’t contain an interface-like display or keyboard, so smart card readers are used to read or update the data tofrom smart cards. Smart cards contain an operating system which provides a platform to run applications. Smart card operating systems can

    • How to Erase Browser History

      How to Erase Browser History

      Erasing browser history clears the record of what web sites the user visited over a period of time. This can help to protect privacy by preventing others from monitoring what web sites the user has been visiting. Erasing Internet Explorer’s Browser History By default, Internet Explorer keeps browser history for 20 days. To erase browser

    • Data Layout on Magnetic Stripe Cards

      Data Layout on Magnetic Stripe Cards

      Data is laid out on a standard magnetic card in three tracks. A magnetic stripe card may have any of these tracks or a combination of these tracks. Track 1 was the first track standardized. The International Air Transportation Association (IATA) developed it and it is still reserved for their use. It is 210bpi with

    • Why Do I Keep Getting Redirected from Google?

      Why Do I Keep Getting Redirected from Google?

      Google or any other search engine may become abnormal when a researcher attempts to search or click on a query and redirect him/her from the page that he/she intended to visit. This is known as a redirect and a wide variety of malware can cause it. It is important to understand what may be causing

    • Sonicwall Default Password

      Sonicwall Default Password

      Sonicwall is a company that produces routers, modems, VPN (Virtual Private Network) hardware, and firewall solutions for both personal and commercial users. Sonicwall routers, in particular, are widely distributed to an array of consumers who access the Internet through high speed secure connections due to the support that Sonicwall products provide. Sonicwall routers generally consist

    • Cryptographic Algorithms

      Cryptographic Algorithms

      Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM’s Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits.

    • Test Credit Card Numbers

      Test Credit Card Numbers

      A test credit card number is the card number of a fake live credit account provided by a credit card company in order for retailers to verify that their card readers are working properly and that they are compatible with a specific credit card brand. Test credit card numbers are read like real credit card

    • How Do Keygens Work?

      How Do Keygens Work?

      Anyone who plays video games knows that they are not cheap. To get around paying for them, many users take advantage of keygen software that is widely available for free on the Internet market and allows users to trick the game into thinking that they have the correct registration key. This type of theft does

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