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    • What is a CMOS Inverter?

      What is a CMOS Inverter?

      A CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) inverter is a device that produces logic functions and is the primary component of all integrated circuits. A CMOS inverter is a field-effect transistor that is composed of a metal gate that lies on top of an insulating layer of oxygen, which lies on top of a semiconductor. CMOS inverters

    • Fractal Antenna

      Fractal Antenna

      A fractal antenna is a diamond-shaped antenna that maximizes the total amount of material within a given amount of space that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. Fractal antennas do this by making each section of the antenna its own separate dipole. Because of this design, fractal antennas operate at many different frequencies and wavebands, allowing

    • IFL (Interfacility Link)

      IFL (Interfacility Link)

      An IFL, or Interfacility Link, is a cable system that is used in facilities to connect an outdoor unit and an indoor unit. An outdoor unit refers to the satellite receiver or coaxial cable that connects a service provider to a company while an indoor unit refers to the coaxial cables, routers, or transmitters inside

    • 8PSK


      8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying) is a phase modulation algorithm. Phase modulation is a version of frequency modulation where the phase of the carrier wave is modulated to encode bits of digital information in each phase change. The “PSK” in 8PSK refers to the use of Phased Shift Keying. Phased Shift Keying is a form

    • How Sunspots Affect Radio Reception

      How Sunspots Affect Radio Reception

      In order to understand how sunspots effect radio reception, you need to understand that the light waves and radio waves that the sun emits are both categorized as electromagnetic (EM) radiation. While light waves are visible to the human eye, they are still electromagnetic waves that oscillate. There are many electro magnetic waves, some oscillate

    • Rainfade


      Rainfade refers to a phenomenon that occurs during strong rain or snowfall in which satellite signals are prevented from reaching their destination. Rainfade may also refer to extensive cloud cover, strong winds, or any other environmental effect that distorts a satellite broadcast, but is most often observed during rainfall. Rainfade may also refer to the

    • High Frequency Alternator

      High Frequency Alternator

      A high-frequency alternator is an electrical device used for radio communications. It yields high-frequency, periodically alternating current that can go as high as 100,000 Hz for the purpose of producing stable radio waves. The History of High-Frequency Alternators By the first decade of the 20th century, wireless telegraphy was already in place and was no

    • How to Test a Capacitor

      How to Test a Capacitor

      A capacitor is used to store energy so that it can provide power to any kind of electrical appliance when it is needed. Over time, though, the capacitor does begin to wear out and when this happens, its effectiveness in powering the appliance can diminish. Therefore, conducting a simple test on the capacitor can provide

    • Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary satellites are located exactly above the earth’s equator and revolve around the earth in a circular orbit. Their revolving speed and direction (west to east) are exactly same as that of the earth, which makes it look stationary from the earth’s surface. The exact altitude of these satellites above the equator is approximately 36,000

    • GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) is a type of continuous frequency shift modulation that is used to transfer radio signals from satellites and radio broadcasting to mobile devices and vice versa. Unlike other forms of frequency modulation, MSK produces a half sine wave that limits problems associated with non-linear distortion. What is GMSK? GMSK (Gaussian Minimum

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