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    • BJT Transistors

      BJT Transistors

      Basic diodes are constructed from two semiconductor materials, germanium or silicon, to create a basic PN-junction. When two single diodes are connected to each other back-to-back, two PN-junctions that are connected in series are created. They share a common N or P terminal, which forms the basis of a BJT or Bipolar Junction Transistor. The

    • GPS Jammer

      GPS Jammer

      GPS stands for Global Positioning System. It is used by individuals, commercial entities and the military for navigational purposes. GPS uses 24 satellites that orbit the earth and send radio signals. The GPS satellites work with a GPS receiver which today can be found in individual handheld units, car navigational systems, boat navigational systems, highly

    • Baseband


      Generally, a transmission signal contains more than a single frequency. This is to say that there might be several different frequencies linked together or else superimposed on each other. This is just the way all telecommunication systems function. For example, with today's communication technology it is virtually impossible to send low frequencies without experiencing any

    • Circuit Simulator

      Circuit Simulator

      A circuit simulator is a computer program that predicts how electronic circuits work. Circuit designs are first entered through the schematic editor, then the simulation engine solves the complex equations that govern circuit behavior. Circuit simulators are especially useful for designing integrated circuits that are impractical to prototype using breadboards. The three types of simulator

    • Chebyshev Filter

      Chebyshev Filter

      A Chebyshev filter can either be analog or digital, and is an improvement on the Butterworth filter as it has a steeper roll-off and a greater passband and stopband ripple. These filters minimize overall error between actual and idealized filter characteristics for the designed range of the filter. The filter was named after Pafnuty Chebyshev,

    • How to Install XM Radio in a Car

      How to Install XM Radio in a Car

      XM Radio is a type of satellite radio that is extremely popular with people that want more entertainment and programming choices from their radio with less commercials and interruptions. XM Radio is similar to cable TV as users pay a small fee each month to receive superior programming. In XM Radio’s case, users can receive

    • Satellite Radio

      Satellite Radio

      Satellite radio refers to a number of subscription-based radio broadcasting programs that are available in the US, Europe, and elsewhere that are dependent on satellites to provide mobile users with constant radio access. While terrestrial-based FM radio stations only provide radio broadcasts to a specific area, usually confined to the city they are located in,

    • FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is also known as frequency shift modulation and frequency shift signaling. Frequency Shift Keying is a data signal converted into a specific frequency or tone in order to transmit it over wire, cable, optical fiber or wireless media to a destination point. The history of FSK dates back to the early

    • Linear LNB

      Linear LNB

      LNB stands for low noise blocker and it is essentially an amplifier on the end of your small satellite TV dish or communications dish. The “Linear” portion of Linear LNB stands for the characteristics of the radio waves that are transmitted via the satellite in space to your dish (LNB). Two Types of Polarization Circular

    • Trunking


      Traditional radio equipment works because all parties involved in the communication agree on what frequencies they will utilize. Traditional radio scanners work by scanning for and then listening to those frequencies. Trunking radios, on the other hand, constantly renegotiate the frequencies utilized for the conversation. This allows for more efficient utilization of limited frequencies because

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