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    • Ethernet at the Physical Layer

      Ethernet at the Physical Layer

      Ethernet is the most popular Local Area Network architecture that was jointly developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation and Xerox Corporation. It consists of certain specifications and standards as well as hardware devices and components. Ethernet provides services corresponding to physical layer and data link layer of the OSI reference model. Each Ethernet physical

    • Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines, or BPL, refers to the transmission (sending and receiving) of digital data through existing power cables and electricity distribution infrastructures. This can be viewed as a mere variation on using television cables; instead of using television cables, though, power transmission lines are going to be used. The Broadband over Power Lines

    • How to Block an IP Address

      How to Block an IP Address

      An IP address is the numeric label or sequence of numbers that is assigned to a computer or device used on the Internet or a local area network. It is a means of identification and determining the user's address online. When an IP address is blocked, network connections to or from that address are not

    • IP Address

      IP Address

      An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique address that different computers on a computer network use to identify and communicate with one another. An IP address is used as an identifier to find electronic devices connected to one another on a network. Therefore, each device in the network must have its own unique address.

    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • Broadcast Address

      Broadcast Address

      A broadcast address is an IP address that targets all systems on a specific subnet instead of single hosts. The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask, and then applying it with a bitwise OR calculation to

    • Transport Layer

      Transport Layer

      The transport layer is the fourth layer of the OSI Model and exists between the Session Layer and Network Layer. The transport layer is used to actually transfer data from one application to another and can be used to stream data from one device to another. The most popular transport layer, the Transmission Control Protocol,

    • Spanning Tree Protocol

      Spanning Tree Protocol

      Redundant Topology A Local Area Network may consist of more than one segment. Each segment of the LAN connected through a separate physical device mostly switch. Switches use their uplink ports to connect different segments. The LAN administrator can connect the switches with each other through more than one uplink port using redundant topology. Redundant

    • Wi-Fi Software Tools

      Wi-Fi Software Tools

      A wide variety of Wi-Fi software tools are available. These tools for Wi-Fi perform functions such as: Wireless network discovery Wireless network mapping Wireless network traffic analysis Wireless network RF signal strength monitoring Wireless network encryption cracking Wireless network custom frame generation Dictionary or brute force attacks against wireless networks Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

    • Range Extender

      Range Extender

      A range extender is a device that can be placed between two connection points in order to bounce a wireless signal from one device to another. Range extenders work great for large offices and factories that need high-speed Internet throughout the premises without running cables or purchasing satellite Internet. Range extenders can be used with

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