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    • Free Firewall Software

      Free Firewall Software

      Free firewalls have become very common and represent an excellent alternative to commercial firewall packages. Most of these firewalls run under some form of Linux, FreeBSD, or OpenBSD. Many of these free firewalls are front-ends for the lower-level firewall packages which ship with these operating systems, such as pf (Packet Filter), ipf (IPFilter), ipfw (IPFirewall),

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • SCADA


      SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) is a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant, or in other remote locations and sends this data to a central computer that then manages and controls the data. SCADA is a term that is used broadly to portray control and management solutions in a

    • Proxy ARP

      Proxy ARP

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is used by network systems to convert system communications from the routable layer 3 IP protocol to the non-routable layer 2 data link layer protocols. In most cases, you don’t need to modify this behavior at all, and system communications are optimal. In special circumstances it is preferable to have another

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • Jitter


      Jitter is a variation or dislocation in the pulses of a digital transmission; it may be thought of, in a way, as irregular pulses. Jitter can manifest through variations in amplitude, signal strength, and other elements of such waves. The usual causes include connection timeouts, connection time lags, data traffic congestion, and interference. Simply put,

    • How Does WiFi Work?

      How Does WiFi Work?

      Over the past decade, WiFi/wireless networking has become very popular. Low cost and simplicity are some of the reasons why WiFi is so popular. Today,  it is almost impossible to buy a laptop that doesn’t have a wireless card built into the screen, which is why WiFi’s popularity continues to grow. What Does WiFi Stand For?

    • CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) is the preferred encryption protocol in the 802.11i standard. CCMP Cryptography CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm. CCMP utilizes 128-bit keys, with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. The Components of CCMP The Counter Mode (CM)

    • What is a Zeroconf?

      What is a Zeroconf?

      Zeroconf (zero configuration networking) refers to several protocols and techniques that are used together to create an IP (Internet Protocol) network with no special configuration servers or manual operator intervention. These networks allow novices to connect computers, network devices, scanners, and printers to create a functioning network without requiring manual configuration. Zeroconf does not require

    • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

      Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

      The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a network routing protocol that is designed to enable routing inside of an Autonomous System (AS). Cisco developed this protocol in the late 1980s in response to the existing Routing Information Protocol’s (RIP) shortcomings. As Cisco routers became more popular, a number of large networks began using IGRP,

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