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    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • Cisco Network Management

      Cisco Network Management

      Cisco Network Management Overview of Network Management Different people may take network management as different meanings. It may be considered as solitary network consultant for monitoring network activity using outdated protocol analyzer. While network management in distributed database environment, managing network nodes for generating real time graphics and auto polling of network devices. There are

    • WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)

      WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)

      WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) is an interim standard by the WiFi Alliance to comply with the security protocol designed for wireless security. WPA will most likely be rolled into an eventual IEEE 802.11i standard. This protocol was an outcome of numerous severe flaws researchers had discovered in the preceding wireless security system called Wired Equivalent

    • PPP Authentication Protocols

      PPP Authentication Protocols

      Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP support the following PPP authentication protocols: PAP or Password Authentication Protocol The oldest forms of authentication schemes used where the user credential are sent in plain text. This is not the securest form of passing authentication credentials as anybody can use a third party sniffer program and capture these

    • Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Definitions Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): ISDN is a digital transmission system, which is used to transmit voice and data through copper telephone wires. In other words, it's a circuit-switched data transmission system that is used for voice and data transmission over the wire. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): DSL is also a digital transmission system

    • Spanning Tree Protocol

      Spanning Tree Protocol

      Redundant Topology A Local Area Network may consist of more than one segment. Each segment of the LAN connected through a separate physical device mostly switch. Switches use their uplink ports to connect different segments. The LAN administrator can connect the switches with each other through more than one uplink port using redundant topology. Redundant

    • LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

      LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

      LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a protocol for communications between LDAP servers and LDAP clients. LDAP servers store "directories" which are access by LDAP clients. LDAP is called lightweight because it is a smaller and easier protocol which was derived from the X.500 DAP (Directory Access Protocol) defined in the OSI network protocol stack.

    • The OSI Model – What It Is; Why It Matters; Why It Doesn’t Matter.

      The OSI Model – What It Is; Why It Matters; Why It Doesn’t Matter.

      The OSI Model was created based on recommendations from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1980, which started expanding on the DoD model in the late 1970s. The current standard was published in 1996. The official title for the model is the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model since it describes or relates

    • How Unix and Windows traceroutes differ

      How Unix and Windows traceroutes differ

      The Unix/Linux `traceroute` command and the Microsoft Windows `tracert` commands both accomplish the task of tracing network paths, but they do it in slightly different ways. Both of these tools for tracing network routes send out a packet wth TTL (Time To Live) set to 1 and report it’s destnation. Then, they send out a

    • How to Use Ping to Test a Network

      How to Use Ping to Test a Network

      The following steps elaborate on how to use the Ping utility to perform progressively more distant tests on network connectivity. Ping the Loopback Address – Type Ping Successfully pinging the loopback address verifies that TCP/IP is both installed and configured correctly on the local client. If the loopback test fails, it means IP stack

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