In the study of cryptography the terms plaintext and ciphertext are used to describe the plain language message or information and the resulting encrypted message or data that results from the use of a cipher or encryption algorithm. The resulting ciphertext is not readable by either a human or computer without the correct cipher to decrypt the information. In order to decipher the text, the correct key and decryption method must be employed or else the information contained in the encrypted mes
Anonymous browsing is simply browsing the World Wide Web with most of one's identity hidden. This is primarily done through what is known as an anonymous browser based proxy. These websites hide information such as the computer's location and IP address when users use them to browse the web. For example, when the user tries to access something on a certain part of the web, the proxy will talk to that file as the user's ambassador, maintaining the user's privacy. The practice of anonymous browsin
Digital certificates are the equivalent of a driver's license, a marriage license, or any other form of identity. The only difference is that a digital certificate is used in conjunction with a public key encryption system. Digital certificates are electronic files that simply work as an online passport. Digital certificates are issued by a third party known as a Certification Authority such as VeriSign or Thawte. These third party certificate authorities have the responsibility to confirm the i
Google or any other search engine may become abnormal when a researcher attempts to search or click on a query and redirect him/her from the page that he/she intended to visit. This is known as a redirect and a wide variety of malware can cause it. It is important to understand what may be causing the problem as well as the process for removing it. These types of Google redirects can be very malicious because they can log personal information and transmit the data to another source. The perso
A computer virus is a program which reproduces itself. It may attach to other programs, it may create copies of itself (as in companion viruses). It may damage or corrupt data, change data, or degrade the performance of your system by utilizing resources such as memory or disk space. Types of Computer Viruses A computer virus may be categorized with one or more of the following four designations: Boot sector computer virus Master Boot Record (MBR) computer virus File infector compu
The word forensic comes from the Latin word forensis, which means "before the forum," and refers to something "of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law." In this day and age, it almost always refers to a method of obtaining criminal evidence in order to use it in a court of law. Forensic science is typically just referred to as "forensics" and is the practical application of numerous sciences to solve legal system related questions in either a civil or criminal action. Using the term "
An ATM skimmer is a card reader that is installed on some ATMs by criminals in order to steal the card numbers and PINs of the victims who use them. ATM skimmers vary in sophistication, but may be installed either directly within an ATM or next to it and may either interfere with the ATM’s regular functions or simply trick the victim into swiping his/her card. ATM skimming has been performed since the 1990s, but has recently become much more popular due to smaller computers and other advanced
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The HotBar add-on is an add-on program for Internet Explorer that personalizes email, as well as the functionality and visual appearance of browser applications. While performing the functions noted above, HotBar also makes multiple connections with “hotbar.com” and “reports.shopperreports.com”. Hotbar also monitors phrases the user enters into search engines and reports them to third parties in order to allow the user to be targeted by embedded ads, as well as targeted pop-ups.
Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM's Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits. Triple-DES is a variant of DES which encrypts the plaintext with the DES algorithm three times. IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorit
LSASS, or local security authority subsystem service, is a process that functions as part of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Essentially, LSASS is part of the process for maintaining and enforcing the security protocols on the operating system. To this end, LSASS performs several important functions to ensure that the system remains free from unauthorized access and is protected from a wide range of viruses and bugs. What does LSASS Specifically do? Perhaps the most common task that LS
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