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    • Spot Beam

      Spot Beam

      A spot beam is a beam of radio signals that is directed towards a specific area on the Earth’s surface. Spot beams are the opposite of broad beams, which are beams that are directed towards a large area of the Earth’s surface. While broad beams are used for general telecommunication and surveillance, spot beams are

    • Baud Rate

      Baud Rate

      Named after Emile Baudot, the inventor of the Baudot code for telegraphy, a baud is a unit that is synonymous to symbols per second. Therefore, if there was something with 15 Bd, that would mean that something had 15 symbols per second. Not to be confused with bits per second, the baud — which, when

    • Rheostats


      A rheostat is an electrical component that has an adjustable resistance. It is a type of potentiometer that has two terminals instead of three. The two main types of rheostat are the rotary and slider. The symbol for a rheostat is a resistor symbol with an arrow diagonally across it. Rheostats are used in many

    • Integrated Circuit

      Integrated Circuit

      An integrated circuit (IC), also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. History The integrated circuit was invented in 1958 by Jack Kirby (1923-2005), an American engineer. In 2000, he won the Nobel prize in physics

    • Fractal Antenna

      Fractal Antenna

      A fractal antenna is a diamond-shaped antenna that maximizes the total amount of material within a given amount of space that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. Fractal antennas do this by making each section of the antenna its own separate dipole. Because of this design, fractal antennas operate at many different frequencies and wavebands, allowing

    • What is a Phototransistor?

      What is a Phototransistor?

      A phototransistor is a device that converts light energy into electric energy. Phototransistors are similar to photoresistors but produce both current and voltage, while photoresistors only produce current. This is because a phototransistor is made of a bipolar semiconductor and focuses the energy that is passed through it. Photons (light particles) activate phototransistors and are

    • What is a Balun?

      What is a Balun?

      A balun is an electrical transformer that is used to convert electrical signals to and from balanced and unbalanced signals. They are normally used to connect lines that have different levels of impedance and are commonly used in the home for connecting HD and traditional antennas. Baluns are also used throughout industry, although it is

    • Who Invented the Radio?

      Who Invented the Radio?

      Radio was not invented by any single person, but instead was a culmination of several scientists’ research, each of whom pioneered a different area of electromagnetic radiation and radio waves during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Among these men are well known researchers such as Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, James Clerk Maxwell, David E. Hughes,

    • Military Alphabet

      Military Alphabet

      The military alphabet, or more properly the phonetic alphabet, exists in innumerable variants. If any military alphabet can be viewed as the most correct, it is the current NATO standard military alphabet. However, even with the NATO standard military alphabet, various member nations use numerous spelling variations. This version of the military alphabet is also

    • UHF (Ultra High Frequency)

      UHF (Ultra High Frequency)

      UHF is an acronym for a band of radio frequencies often used to broadcast television signals. Mobile phones and satellite radio also use UHF signals. The letters ‘UHF’ stand for: Ultra High Frequency. UHF Frequencies Any radio frequency between 300 MegaHertz (MHz) and 3,000 MHz (or 3 GigaHertz) is considered to be in the UHF

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