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    • IFL (Interfacility Link)

      IFL (Interfacility Link)

      An IFL, or Interfacility Link, is a cable system that is used in facilities to connect an outdoor unit and an indoor unit. An outdoor unit refers to the satellite receiver or coaxial cable that connects a service provider to a company while an indoor unit refers to the coaxial cables, routers, or transmitters inside

    • IC Design

      IC Design

      In the modern world of data and information, computer systems need circuits that are able to process and transfer that information. Because of this, a great deal of resources and innovation go into creating more advanced circuitry in order to increase data transfer rates and make computer systems smaller. This article will demonstrate how integrated

    • What is a BUC?

      What is a BUC?

      A BUC (Block Upconverter) is a device that converts radio signals from a lower frequency to a higher frequency. BUCs are used in satellite uplink transmissions in order to transfer data from a ground based unit to a satellite in orbit that will then be redirected to another ground based unit in separate location. Likewise,

    • Rainfade


      Rainfade refers to a phenomenon that occurs during strong rain or snowfall in which satellite signals are prevented from reaching their destination. Rainfade may also refer to extensive cloud cover, strong winds, or any other environmental effect that distorts a satellite broadcast, but is most often observed during rainfall. Rainfade may also refer to the

    • Thyristor


      A thyristor is a solid state semiconductor device that consists of four alternating layers of N-type and P-type material. Many sources consider thyristors to be the same as Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs). In some cases they are defined as a large group of devices – the eligibility criterion being that the device should consist of

    • What is a Momentary Switch?

      What is a Momentary Switch?

      A common question asked by new student of electronics is what is a momentary switch? The short answer is that a momentary switch is a unit capable of turning any electronic device to either an on or off state when an end-user presses the switch. This type of switch can actually represent one of two

    • What Does DIN Stand For?

      What Does DIN Stand For?

      DIN stands for ‘Deutsches Institut für Normung’ which means ‘German Institute of Standardization’. DIN develops norms and standards as a service to industry, to the state and to society as a whole. It is a registered non profit organization which has been based in Berlin since 1917. It consists of nearly 1,700 members who include

    • Forward Error Correction (FEC)

      Forward Error Correction (FEC)

      Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a type of error correction that involves encoding a message in a redundant way, which allows the receiver to reconstruct lost bits without the need for retransmission. How Forward Error Correction Works FEC works by adding “check bits” to the outgoing data stream. Adding more check bits reduces the amount

    • Military Alphabet

      Military Alphabet

      The military alphabet, or more properly the phonetic alphabet, exists in innumerable variants. If any military alphabet can be viewed as the most correct, it is the current NATO standard military alphabet. However, even with the NATO standard military alphabet, various member nations use numerous spelling variations. This version of the military alphabet is also

    • Low Earth Orbit

      Low Earth Orbit

      Low Earth Orbit (LEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at altitudes between (very roughly) 200 miles and 930 miles. Low Earth Orbit satellites must travel very quickly to resist the pull of gravity — approximately 17,000 miles per hour. Because of this, Lowe Earth Orbit satellies can orbit the planet in as

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