Azimuth

Azimuth

Azimuth is a measurement at an angle used in the spherical coordinate system. To find a point of interest, the observer creates a vector that is then projected in a perpendicular fashion onto a reference plane. The resulting angle between the projected vector and the reference vector located on the reference plane is the azimuth. It is the direction on the reference plane that is used to determine where the point of interest lies in the spherical coordinate system. A common use of the azimuth

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What is a Balun?

What is a Balun?

A balun is an electrical transformer that is used to convert electrical signals to and from balanced and unbalanced signals. They are normally used to connect lines that have different levels of impedance and are commonly used in the home for connecting HD and traditional antennas. Baluns are also used throughout industry, although it is not necessarily obvious when one is being used. What are the Types of Baluns? Autotransformer Balun – The autotransformer balun uses two coils that are plac

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Potentiometer

Potentiometer

A potentiometer, called pot for short, is an electrical component that acts as a variable voltage divider. They usually have three terminals, one of which is connected to a moving center contact. A potentiometer with two terminals is a variable resistor, called a rheostat. Potentiometers come in many forms including rotaries, trimmers, sliders. Potentiometer is also the term for an old instrument that measured an unknown voltage after being calibrated with a known voltage. These have been repla

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Fractal Antenna

Fractal Antenna

A fractal antenna is a diamond-shaped antenna that maximizes the total amount of material within a given amount of space that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. Fractal antennas do this by making each section of the antenna its own separate dipole. Because of this design, fractal antennas operate at many different frequencies and wavebands, allowing them to be used for a wide variety of applications, most of which can be found in the cellular telephone and microwave communication indus

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What is JFET?

What is JFET?

Junction gate Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) is also known as JUGFET. The JFET is the most simple type of field effect transistor currently in use and has either voltage controlled resistance or an electronically controlled switch. When using a JFET, the electric charge flows in a semiconducting channel that is located between the source and drain terminals. When a bias voltage is applied to the gate terminal, the channel is pinched in order to switch off the electric current. JFET History Jul

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Piezoelectric Transducer

Piezoelectric Transducer

A piezoelectric transducer is a device that converts electricity into mechanical forces or vibrations. Although piezoelectric transducers have other uses, ultrasonic devices require them. Piezoelectric transducers usually converts electricity into vibrations and vibrations into electricity, although this is not always the case. They rely on two phenomena known as “electrostriction” and “the piezoelectric effect.” How Piezoelectric Transducers Work Piezoelectric transducers are made o

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What is an Isolation Transformer?

What is an Isolation Transformer?

An isolation transformer is made of two copper coils that are wound around each other and are each supplied by their own power source. While the term “isolation transformer” technically refers to any transformer, it is specifically a transformer that isolates a circuit from an alternating current. An isolation transformer does this by separating two circuits with an induction loop or decreasing the alternating current's voltage before it reaches the circuit itself. How Isolation Transform

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Zener Diode

Zener Diode

A Zener diode transfers current forward and backward, while traditional diodes are only capable of transferring current forward. Many different electronic systems use Zener diodes to control their circuit's voltage levels. While there are several ways of doing this, Zener diodes provide efficient voltage regulation without damaging the diode itself. How Zener Diodes Work For the most part, a Zener diode acts like a regular diode as current moves in a forward direction in its circuit. However

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Baud Rate

Baud Rate

Named after Emile Baudot, the inventor of the Baudot code for telegraphy, a baud is a unit that is synonymous to symbols per second. Therefore, if there was something with 15 Bd, that would mean that something had 15 symbols per second. Not to be confused with bits per second, the baud -- which, when using the symbol, must follow the SI nomenclature with a capital first letter and a lowercase second letter -- can be any of the many different kinds of symbols while a bit is only 0 or 1. In older

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Retrograde Orbit

Retrograde Orbit

A retrograde orbit is an orbit where the satellite travels in an East to West direction instead of the common West to East orbit. The normal West to East orbits are known as prograde orbits. Retrograde orbits are uncommon due to the much higher velocities necessary for successful launch and the associated higher costs. During a prograde launch, rotational velocity of the Earth is added to the velocity of the launch rocket. In a retrograde launch, the rotational velocity of the Earth is sub

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