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    • Radio Repeater

      Radio Repeater

      Portable radios are limited in the power at which they can transmit, usually somewhere between .5 watts and 5 watts. A very rough rule of thumb is that one watt equals one mile of range over flat and open terrain. Buildings and mountains will, of course, greatly modify effective range. When two radios communicate directly

    • Crystal Radio

      Crystal Radio

      The crystal radio is a rudimentary radio receiver that can be made from a few easy-to-obtain and inexpensive parts. It is unique for this type of radio does not require a battery pack, has no moving parts, and can be built using ordinary household materials, yet it actually works. The only power it receives comes

    • C Band

      C Band

      C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites. C-Band uses 3.7-4.2GHz for downlink and 5.925-6.425Ghz for uplink. The lower frequencies that C Band uses perform better under adverse weather conditions than the Ku band or Ka band frequencies. C Band Variants Slight C Band frequency variations are approved for use in various parts

    • How to Ground a TV Antenna

      How to Ground a TV Antenna

      Television antennas are generally installed on top of buildings, which makes the entire structure susceptible to lightning strikes. In order to protect the building that the TV antenna is attached to, the antenna has to be grounded properly. Another danger of mounting a television antenna that is not grounded properly is the excessive static electricity

    • Ka Band

      Ka Band

      The Ka band uplink uses frequencies between 27.5GHz and 31Ghz and the downlink uses frequencies between 18.3 and 18.8Ghz and between 19.7 and 20.2Ghz. The Ka band is branch of the K band from the electromagnetic spectrum. The term “Ka-band” is from Kurz-above, which originates from the German phrase “kurz” implying short. Ka band dishes

    • Chebyshev Filter

      Chebyshev Filter

      A Chebyshev filter can either be analog or digital, and is an improvement on the Butterworth filter as it has a steeper roll-off and a greater passband and stopband ripple. These filters minimize overall error between actual and idealized filter characteristics for the designed range of the filter. The filter was named after Pafnuty Chebyshev,

    • Alternator

      Alternator

      An alternator turns mechanical energy into electrical energy, in the form of alternating current. It is a type of generator, most commonly used by automobiles to power their electrical systems. They are usually mounted on the side of the internal combustion engine. How Alternators Work An alternator consists of a rotor, stator, rectifier, housing, and

    • SWR Meters

      SWR Meters

      Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) meters are used to measure the standing wave ratio in a communications transmission line. The meter can display how much a transmission line and the load are mismatched (normally a radio antenna). It also determines how effective the impedance is of matching efforts. In CB and ham radio circles, the SWR

    • Piezoelectric Transducer

      Piezoelectric Transducer

      A piezoelectric transducer is a device that converts electricity into mechanical forces or vibrations. Although piezoelectric transducers have other uses, ultrasonic devices require them. Piezoelectric transducers usually converts electricity into vibrations and vibrations into electricity, although this is not always the case. They rely on two phenomena known as “electrostriction” and “the piezoelectric effect.” How

    • Trunking

      Trunking

      Traditional radio equipment works because all parties involved in the communication agree on what frequencies they will utilize. Traditional radio scanners work by scanning for and then listening to those frequencies. Trunking radios, on the other hand, constantly renegotiate the frequencies utilized for the conversation. This allows for more efficient utilization of limited frequencies because

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