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    • Round Trip Time

      Round Trip Time

        Round Trip Time, or RTT, also known as “round-trip delay time” is the time it takes for a signal to be sent from a transmitter to a receiver plus the time it takes to verify that the signal has been received; therefore, Round Trip Time is the time it takes for a signal to be

    • Satellite Radio

      Satellite Radio

      Satellite radio refers to a number of subscription-based radio broadcasting programs that are available in the US, Europe, and elsewhere that are dependent on satellites to provide mobile users with constant radio access. While terrestrial-based FM radio stations only provide radio broadcasts to a specific area, usually confined to the city they are located in,

    • Thermoelectric Generators

      Thermoelectric Generators

      A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that works similar to solar panels but converts heat, rather than sunlight, directly into electricity. A thermoelectric generator is usually made of bismuth telluride semiconductor junctions that are only several millimeters thick. This differs drastically from the bimetallic junctions that were previously used, which were much thicker. Thermoelectric

    • L band

      L band

      L band is a fequency range between 390MHz and 1.55GHz which is used for satellite communications and for terrestrial communications between satellite equipment. The high frequencies utilized by C band, Ku band, and Ka band would suffer from high signal loss when transported over a copper coax cable such as an Intra-Facility Link. An LNB

    • LNB (Low Noise Block)

      LNB (Low Noise Block)

      An LNB (Low Noise Block aka LNC- Low Noise Converter) is used for communications (broadcast) satellite reception. The LNB is usually affixed either in or on the satellite dish. The LNB’s purpose is to utilize the super heterodyne effect and amplify and convert a wide block (band) of frequencies. This helps compensate the signal loss

    • What is a CMOS Inverter?

      What is a CMOS Inverter?

      A CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) inverter is a device that produces logic functions and is the primary component of all integrated circuits. A CMOS inverter is a field-effect transistor that is composed of a metal gate that lies on top of an insulating layer of oxygen, which lies on top of a semiconductor. CMOS inverters

    • How GPS Tracking Works

      How GPS Tracking Works

      GPS – A Short Introduction GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is a satellite navigation system that can ascertain the latitude and longitude of a GPS receiver device on the Earth.  The GPS consists of more than two dozen global positioning satellites orbiting the earth. Each satellite transmits radio signals, which can help determine

    • IDU (In-Door Unit)

      IDU (In-Door Unit)

      An IDU, or In-Door Unit, is a telecommunication device that is used in satellite television and Internet service to receive and decode satellite transmissions. An IDU is a box that connects to the user’s television and/or router and contains a built-in satellite receiver that may also be connected to a satellite dish on the roof

    • VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)

      VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)

      VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is basically a two-way satellite ground station with a less than 3 meters tall (most of them are about 0.75 m to 1.2 m tall) dish antenna stationed. The transmission rates of VSATs are usually from very low up to 4 Mbit/s. These VSATs’ primary job is to access the

    • The Piezoelectric Effect

      The Piezoelectric Effect

      Some materials have the ability to produce electricity when subjected to mechanical stress. This is called the piezoelectric effect. This stress can be caused by hitting or twisting the material just enough to deform its crystal lattice without fracturing it. The effect also works in the opposite way, with the material deforming slightly when a

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