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    • Transmission Electron Microscope

      Transmission Electron Microscope

      The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a scientific instrument that uses electrons instead of light to scrutinize objects at very fine resolutions. They were developed in the 1930s when scientists realized that electrons can be used instead of light to "magnify" objects or specimens under study. TEMs provided a means to go beyond the magnification

    • How Do Electric Motors Work?

      How Do Electric Motors Work?

      As society is trying to slowly ween itself off of oil-dependency, the search for alternative fuels continues. One source of alternative "fuel" that already exists, however, is the electric motor. Electric motors are commonly found in vehicles, toys, and other electronic devices but there is still a campaign to improve the quality and efficiency of

    • Nanomachines


      Nanomachines (nanites) are small computers that are measured in nanometers and can perform tasks on a molecular level. They are relatively new, and while only a theory just a few years ago, they are quickly being integrated into a wide variety of industries and products. It has been projected that within one or two decades,

    • What Are Pennies Made Of?

      What Are Pennies Made Of?

      Before 1982, the penny was made of copper which is why they, unlike most other coins, don't look silver. However, after 1982, the U.S. government realized that it was too expensive to make a penny–more than the penny was worth in money–so they decided, instead, to make it with a mixture of two different metals.

    • Automatic Number Plate Recognition

      Automatic Number Plate Recognition

      Automatic number plate recognition is a system designed to automatically recognize and store license plate number data on vehicles passing through a certain point. This is one of the mass surveillance systems that utilize optical character recognition programs and hardware capable of reading 1 plate/second off vehicles running at a maximum of 160 km/hr. Some

    • Acrylic Adhesives

      Acrylic Adhesives

      An acrylic adhesive is a resin-based adhesive that is comprised of acrylic or methylacrylic polymers. It is rather complicated to produce acrylic adhesives as they must be formed into a polymer, suspended in a catalyst, and cured. Acrylic adhesives are very strong and efficient at bonding multiple objects together. They are resistant to sunlight, not

    • How a Fuel Cell Works

      How a Fuel Cell Works

      A fuel cell is a device that produces electrical energy through chemical reaction. This energy conversion process is known as electro-chemical energy conversion. The simplest form of electrochemical device that we use in our day to day life is a battery cell. A fuel cell is different from a battery cell in so far as

    • How Do Lasers Work?

      How Do Lasers Work?

      Lasers have revolutionized the way that many devices and machinery work. From CD players to machines that cut metal, lasers play an important part in many daily activities, right under the noses of unaware consumers. Lasers are used in dental drills, tattoo removal, hair replacement, eye surgery, and there is now even a method of

    • Oxygen Generators

      Oxygen Generators

      An oxygen generator is a device that produces oxygen on demand, usually through the use of inorganic reactions. There are several types of oxygen generators but each depends on thermal reactions to produce oxygen. This causes the generator to become very hot, between 500 and 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, and can present a serious fire hazard

    • Hot Water Circulators

      Hot Water Circulators

      A hot water circulator (circulator pump) is a device that circulates hot water through a house’s pipes so that hot water is always instantly available. In traditional one-way plumbing systems, water is run through a hot water heater and directed through the pipes towards the taps whenever a tap is turned on. When a tap

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